Guru Gobind Singhji was the tenth and last of the human form Guru of Sikhism, born at Patna Sahib Bihar on 5th Jan 1666, son of ninth Guru Tej Bahadurji and Mata Gujri. Guru Gobind Singhji became the Guru of Sikhism at the age of nine only. He is well-known as great warrior, poet, philosopher and prophet. His establishment of the Khalsa - society of soldier-saints and five Ks are key events in Sikhism. These five Ks are Kesh (uncut hair), Kangha (wooden comb), Kara (iron bracelet), Kachera (cotton underpant) and Kirpan (iron dagger). Guruji wrote the holy book – Guru Granth Sahib and declared as permanent eternal Guru of Sikhism. Guruji’s Early education included study of Punjabi, Braj, Sanskrit, Persian and Arabic and parallel training as a soldier.


In 1675, Kashmiri Pandits approached Guru Tegh Bahadur to protect them from Mughal Emperor. Tegh Bahadur promised to protect the Kashmiri Pandits and went to Delhi, Guru Tegh Bahadurji was asked to convert to Islam. He refused to convert, so he was arrested and was beheaded in public on November 11, 1675, in Chandni Chowk, Delhi. Such execution only toughened determination of the Sikhs to fight against Mughals in safeguarding their human rights and identity as Sikhs. After this incident nine year old Gobind rai was declared as tenth Guru of Sikhs on Vaisakhi.

Guru Gobind Singh fought the Battle of Bhangani against an allied force of Bhim Chand, Garwal king Fateh Khan and other local kings of the Sivalik Hills at the age of 19 in September 1688 and Guru came out with victory. This battle is described in Bichitra Natak as part of the Dasham Granth, which is a religious text attributed to Guru Gobind Singh.


Khalsa and Five K’s Tradition: - In 1699, the Guru asked the Sikhs to assemble at Anandpur on Vaisakhi. Guruji called for a volunteer from crowd who is ready to sacrifice his head. One Sikh named Daya Ram came forward and Guru took him in a tent and returned alone in crowd with blood dripping from his sword. Guru continued the process with three more volunteers but after the fifth volunteer went inside the tent, the Guru came out with all the five volunteers unharmed. Guruji blessed the five volunteers and called them Panj Pyare and first Khalsa in the Sikh tradition. Guruji took an iron bowl and prepared solution of water and sugar stirring it with a double-edged sword calling it Amrit. These five volunteers then received the nectar from the Guru amidst recitations from the Adi Granth. With this the khande ka pahul of the warrior community of Khalsa was initiated. A new surname of “Singh” meaning lion was given to them by the Guru. The Guru then asked the five Sikhs to describe him as a Khalsa and with this the Guruji became the sixth Khalsa. The Guru Gobind Singh commanded the Sikhs to wear five items all the time which is known as 5 K’s tradition. A code of discipline was introduced by him for the Khalsa warriors. The principle of equality was institutionalized in Sikhism with initiation of both men and women from different castes as Khalsas. The Guru played an instrumental role by institutionalizing Khalsa in Sikhism and strengthening the Sikhs in their resistance on the continuous persecution of the Mughal Empire under Aurangzeb.

वाहेगुरुजी का खालसा वाहेगुरुजी की फ़तेह

After repeated conflicts with Mughal leaders, Guru Gobind Singh wrote a letter to Aurangzeb in Persian, which was later famously named as Zafarnama, reminding him of the misdeed the Mughals had done to the Sikhs. He fought against the Mughals later in battle of Muktsar in 1705.

After Aurangzeb's death, Guru Gobind Singh no longer remained an opponent to the Mughals. The next Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah was friendly with Guru Gobind at first. He even named the Guru as Hind Ka Pir or the Saint of India. But later on, Bahadur Shah was influenced by Wazir Khan, Nawab of Sirhind, to attack the Sikh community. Wazir Khan sent two Pathan assassins Jamshed Khan and Wasil Beg to attack the Guru during his sleep at Nanded. They stabbed Guru Gobind Singh in his sleep. Guru killed Jamshed khan with his sword and other Sikh brothers killed Wasil Beg..

Celebration: People from Sikh community remember their tenth Guru Gobind Singh on his Jayanti and celebrate in various way. At some places parade are held, people sing devotional songs and listen poetry written by him. During the parade, delicious sweets and cold drink are shared among children and adults. Special prayer gatherings are arranged at the Gurudwaras, which are lit and decorated on this special day, to remember Guru Gobind Singh and his teachings on his birthday. The Gurudwaras prepare food for people paying their respect on this day, irrespective of religion or caste. The devotees get together and recite the Guru Grantha Sahib before serving food to all. Local dish made of tamarind rice dish called Puligore, Holige- sweet bread along with Ugadi Pachadi- sweet and sour chutney are prepared on this auspicious day.